Stem cells are parent cells which are capable of regeneration and differentiation into a wide range of specialized cell types. Once injected, stem cells follow inflammatory signals from damaged tissues and have multiple ways of repairing these damaged areas.
The mesenchymal stem cells we are using are considered to be multipotent (they can transform into different cell types but cannot form an organ) but not pluripotent (capable of giving rise to several different cell types). In the body, these cells Do NOT function by transforming into different cell types or tissues.
They act via anti-inflammatory activity, immune modulating capacity, and the ability to stimulate regeneration. As we age we have fewer mesenchymal stem cells in our bodies. In fact by the time we hit bone maturity we only have 10% of the stem cells that we previously had. So we are 10 times as big and only have 10% of these stem cells left. The stem cells guide traffic and manage the immune system cells. So when we have inflammation the immune system cells are signaled to go to that area. In their perfect state these immune system cells such as T-Cells would only attack antigens and pathogens. Unfortunately since we have fewer mesenchymal stem cells to guide the T-Cells, they get confused and accidentally attack the area of inflammation. So instead of helping, the immune system compounds the problem. When we put stem cells back into our system then things run the right way and our body can heal itself naturally.
If you would like to learn more about treatments with mesenchymal stem cells then we highly recommend reading this book: https://www.amazon.com/Stem-Cell-Therapy-Disrupting-Transforming-ebook/dp/B071GRNQPX