The prevalence of kidney diseases is emerging as a public health problem. Stem cells (SCs), currently considered as
a promising tool for therapeutic application, have aroused considerable interest and expectations. With self-renewal
capabilities and great potential for proliferation and differentiation, stem cell therapy opens new avenues for the
development of renal function and structural repair in kidney diseases. Mounting evidence suggests that stem cells
exert a therapeutic effect mainly by replacing damaged tissues and paracrine pathways. The benefits of various
types of SCs in acute kidney disease and chronic kidney disease have been demonstrated in preclinical studies, and
preliminary results of clinical trials present its safety and tolerability. This review will focus on the stem cell-based
therapy approaches for the treatment of kidney diseases, including various cell sources used, possible mechanisms
involved, and outcomes that are generated so far, along with prospects and challenges in clinical application.

Keywords: Stem cells, Kidney diseases, Kidney regeneration, Organoids, Embryonic stem cells, Mesenchymal stem
cells, Induced pluripotent stem cells, Progenitor cells